PSP in the US Credit:

PSP in the US

Fish Radio

May 16, 2014                          

 This is Fish Radio. I’m Laine Welch….Alaska clam diggers are playing Alaska Roulette. I’ll tell you more after this –

Fish Radio is brought to you by the At-Sea Processors Association. APA fishing companies hold job fairs and support training programs to promote good paying job opportunities for Alaskans in the Alaska pollock industry. Learn more about fishing and processing jobs at

 Federal grants are available to help “Made in America” companies compete with imports and save US jobs. Learn more at


It’s that time of year when lots of clam diggers head to sand flats. Be sure and pay attention to shellfish advisories, like for PSP. Paralytic shellfish Poisoning is caused by tiny marine organisms in algae blooms often referred to incorrectly as red tides. PSP is commonly found in all kinds of clams. Neither cooking nor freezing neutralizes the toxin, which attacks the nervous system and can be a quick killer.

 It’s deadly. A thousand times more toxic than strychnine. It’s a neurotoxin so it effects the nervous transmission, which is why they call it PSP toxin. Often starts out with a tingling around the face and extremities, the hands. Then it works its way through a number of symptoms, blurred vision, double vision, nausea, ultimately paralysis and cardiac arrest. Death is very quick.

 Ray RaLonde is an aquaculture specialist with the Sea Grant Marine Advisory Program. He says PSP is a tricky array of 24 different toxins, some deadly, some not. Toxic levels can differ from one clam hole to another on the same beach, and change with the tide. RaLonde says PSP levels also differ between popular clams.    

 The two most likely to be confused are littleneck clams, called steamers, and butter clams. Both about the same size. So it’s important to be aware of the differences between the two. Littleneck clam is relatively non toxic compared to a butter clam, which can retain the toxin for two years, so you can get toxicity off season. Both can be dug in the same hole in the tide flats. Butter clams tend to be a little deeper.

 No one is sure why, but Kodiak Island and along the South Peninsula have some of the highest PSP levels in the world.

 It’s really quite intense, the PSP blooms on occasion. In one incident the level on blue mussels reached 20,000 micrograms. The FDA level is 80 micrograms. So 20 thousand is very lethal.

 Some clam diggers test for PSP with their tongues. If it tingles, it’s not safe. But RaLonde warns from tongue to tummy, toxicity can increase six fold.

 To put that in perspective, at 20-thousand micrograms I tell people if you eat a blue mussel your life is worth 11 cents. A dime and a penny worth of mussel weight and you just got a lethal dose.

 The State strictly monitors all commercially caught shellfish catches for PSP, but that’s not the case for clam diggers. The Alaska Department of Epidemiology says those folks are playing ‘AlaskanRoulette.’   

Fish Radio is also brought to you by Ocean Beauty Seafoods. Ocean Beauty has contributed over 10 million meals to the U.S. Food Bank network, and is committed to ending hunger in America.   In Kodiak,